ANIMAL DIVERSITY AND CLASSIFICATATION I
Echinodermata is derived from Greek meaning urchin Echinus, and charity means the skin. All kinds of Echinoderms live in the sea, ranging from the littoral to a depth of 6,000 m. Included in the phylum Echinodermata include sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and others. Generally large, the smallest diameter of 1 cm (Brotowidjoyo, 1994).
Echinoderms are marine biological resources are quite popular, Echinodermata diexploitasi by the public as a source of food, so the population is reduced Echinodermata, to overcome this, the government has adopted a policy in the Act as stated in 3 SK Menteru Forestry Decree No. ie. 12 Th. 1987 About Flora Fauna Protected, No. 301 Th. 1991 on Conversion of Natural Resources and Ecosystems and no. 882 Th. 1992 on the Protection of Aquatic Biota Sea (Anonimous, 1993).
Echinoderms are marine animals that have a prickly skin or berbintil. The animals were divided into five main classes namely: Holothuroidea (Cucumber), Asteroidea (starfish), Ophiuroidea (serpent star), Echinoidea (sea urchins) and Crinoidea (sea lilies). These animals are very common in coastal areas, especially in coral reef areas. In Indonesia and the surrounding area (Indi western Pacific region) there are approximately 141 types of sea cucumbers, sea stars 87 species, 142 species of snakes stars, sea urchins and sea lilies 84 types 91 types (Nontji, 1993).
Members of the phylum Echinodermata are the inhabitants of the marine environment, particularly in the marine benthic. Distinctiveness is the body that lead to five structured around a polar axis. This animal has a skeleton in having spines (spine). The digestive system is quite developed, but have no excretory system. Most members of the phylum Echinodermata diostus, bersaluran simple reproduction, ferilisasi lasted eksternl (Ruppert, 1991). Brotowidjoyo (1994), stating the animal has a complete digestive system is not functioning even though the anus. According to Niel A. Campbell et al (2003), that members of the phylum Echinodermata sexual reproduction generally involves individual males and females separately (diostus) and liberate gametnya into the water.
Hyman (1955), stated the class Echinodermata include:
1. Class Asteroidea
Asteroidea or many people call sea stars, usually found crawling on rocks, sand and coral reefs in the sea. Animal’s mouth is on the underside is located in the middle of the disc and above the anus. Steroidea including carnivores, foods such as fish, oysters, clams, barnacles, snails, worms, and other crustaceae. Any kind of a scavenger. Achantaster are pests that eat the coral polyps Coelenterata. This starfish attractive colors, usually the tip of the spines are reddish or orange while the surface is gray sleeves kebiruan.habitat starfish are mainly slope of the coral reef at a depth of 2-6 meters (Nontji, 1993).
Her whole body was covered with spines except at the oral groove called slit amburakral and some that do not have thorns. Form locomotor tube feet. Branchi emerged between chalk boards that serve as a means of respiration and excretion. These animals have a drainage system, stomach, madreporit (entry and exit channels of water) of the anus. Pediselariae erdapat body surface as additional tools and forms such as tweezers for removing foreign objects in the body surface (Vinomo, 2007).
Picture 1 Structur of sea star
Reproduction Asteroid generally dioecious, having five pairs of gonads in each hand. Eggs and sperm are released into the water, fertilization outside and after 2 days of a free-swimming blastula. The larvae begin eating when the digestive tract is formed. Larval food is phytoplankton and suspended particles. Six or seven weeks later, the larvae fall to the substrate and undergo metamorphosis into adults. Most starfish was 10 years old, there are encapai etapi 34 years (Rumimohtaro & Heilbron, 2001). Starfish and some Echinodermata able to regenerate. Starfish can regrow lost arms and even members of the genus can be setting up again the whole body of an arm (Niel A. Campbell et al 2003).
Diversity in Jepara
FAMILI ARCHASTERIDAE VIGUIER, 1878
Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842
Archaster angulatus Müller & Troschel, 1842: 66; Walenkamp, 1990: 31; Sukarno & Jangoux, 1977: 830.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 10,5/1,5 cm; Pulau Cemara Besar, habitat pasir, 5 cm).
Picture 1. Archaster angulatus: Looks dorsal (a), the ventral (b); pedicellaria shaped forceps (arrows).
Note – Spiniform pedicellaria contained in carinal plate, tweezers shaped Pedicellaria adambulacral also contained plates and Troschel described by Müller (1842) as well as Sukarno and Jangoux (1977).
Archaster typicus Müller & Troschel, 1840
Archaster typicus Müller & Troschel, 1840: 104; Müller & Troschel, 1842: 65; Bedford, 1900: 271; Sukarno & Jangoux, 1977: 822; Purwati & Lane, 2004: 91 (complete synonim).
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 7,5/1 cm; Pulau Cemara Besar, habitat pasir, 5 cm).
Picture 2. Archaster typicus: looks dorsal (a); thorns inferomarginal (b).
Note – This species is very similar to A. angulatus. Significant difference can be seen from the number of spines inferomarginal. A. typicus has inferomarginal plate covered by spines flattened like fish scales. 1 large flat spines emerge from each plate inferomarginal.
FAMILI OPHIDIASTERIDAE VERRILL, 1867
Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Asterias laevigata Linnaeus, 1758: 662; Lamarck, 1816: 566.
Linckia laevigata Clark, 1921: 64; Livingstone, 1932: 254; Clark, 1946: 117; Hayasaka, 1949: 16; Walenkamp, 1990: 58; Moosleitner, 1997: 10; Purwati & Lane, 2004: 95.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 13/2,5 cm; Pulau Cemara Kecil, habitat karang bercabang, 2 m); 1 individu (R/r = 13,5/2 cm; Pulau Menjangan Kecil, karang bercabang, 2 m).
Picture 3. Linckia laevigata: looks dorsal (a); plate abactinal (b).
Note – L. laevigata have 1 madreporit the same long sleeve size and pore clustered.
Linckia multifora (Lamarck, 1816)
Asterias multifora Lamarck, 1816: 565.
Linckia multifora Marsh, 1974: 86; James, 1989: 102; Walenkamp, 1990: 61; Moosleitner, 1997: 10; Chao, 1999: 411; Rowe & Richmond, 2004: 3285; Purwati & Lane, 2004: 95.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 14/2 cm, Pulau Cemara Kecil, habitat karang bercabang, 2 m).
Picture 4. Linckia multifora: looks dorsal (a); plate abactinal (b).
Note – This species is similar to L. laevigata. Significant difference seen from the number and size madreporit arm. L. multifora have 2 madreporit the size of the arm that is not the same length and pore holes are clearly visible.
Nardoa frianti Koehler, 1910
Nardoa frianti Koehler, 1910: 158; Clark, 1967: 175; Moosleitner, 1997: 10; Jeng, 1998: 142; Purwati & Lane, 2004: 96; Chao & Chang, 1989: 217 (complete synonim);
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 7,9/1,7 cm, Pulau Karimunjawa, habitat karang, 2 m); 1 individu (R/r = 8/2 cm, Pulau Cemara Kecil, habitat karang bercabang, 2 m).
Picture 5. Nardoa frianti: looks dorsal (a); tuberkula in the arm (b).
Note – These two specimens have a relatively convex discs. Specimens with the size of R / r = 7.9 / 1.7 cm has a rounded tip tuberkula while another specimen sized R / r = 8/2 cm have a relatively conical tip tuberkula.
Nardoa pauciforis (Von Martens, 1866)
Linckia pauciforis Von Martens, 1866: 69.
Nardoa pauciforis Clark, 1921: 51 (sinonim lengkap); Livingstone, 1932: 252; Clark, 1946: 115.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 8,8/1,7 cm, Pulau Karimunjawa, habitat karang, 2 m).
Picture 6. Nardoa pauciforis: looks dorsal (a); tuberkula in the arm (b).
Note – This species has similarities color when living with N. frianti, a prominent difference is the presence in the distal tuberkula limited. Clark (1946), states that tuberkula located at the distal plate abactinal, this is in accordance with the specimens that have only tuberkula in the distal part.
FAMILI OREASTERIDAE FISHER, 1911
Culcita novaeguineae Müller & Troschel, 1842
Culcita novaeguineae Müller & Troschel, 1842: 38; Bedford, 1900: 296; Clark, 1921: 32; Livingstone, 1932: 250; Clark, 1946: 108; Hayasaka, 1949: 14; Clark, 1954: 254; Marsh, 1974: 77; James, 1989: 100; Chao & Chang, 1989: 216.
Spesimen — 1 individu (diameter 20 cm, Pulau Menjangan Kecil, habitat karang, 3 m).
Picture 7. Culcita novaeguineae: Looks dorsal (a), the ventral side (b). pedicellaria shaped granules (arrows).
Note – Body like a pillow (cushion-like). Pedicellaria shaped granules present in the dorsal and ventral sides.
Protoreaster nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Asterias nodosa Linnaeus, 1758: 661; Lamarck, 1816: 557
Oreaster nodosus Muller & Troschel, 1842: 52; Clark, 1921: 31; Livingstone, 1932: 250.
Protoreaster nodosus Döderlein, 1936: 324; Clark, 1946: 106; Clark, 1954: 254.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 16/9,5 cm; Pulau Karimunjawa, habitat padang lamun, 10 cm).
Picture 8. Protoreaster nodosus: looks dorsal (a); gap ambulacral (b); pedicellaria shaped tweezers (arrows).
Note – According Döderlein (1936), only mentioned pedicellaria shaped folds located on the ventro-lateral, but no mention pedicellaria shaped like tweezers beside ambulacral spines gap.
FAMILI ECHINASTERIDAE VERRILL, 1867
Echinaster luzonicus Gray, 1840
Othilia luzonicus Gray, 1840: 282; Gray, 1841: 282.
Echinaster luzonicus Clark, 1921: 98; Livingstone, 1932: 263; Hayashi, 1940: 123; Clark, 1946: 146; Marsh, 1974: 93 (sinonim lengkap); Jeng, 1998: 1425.
Spesimen — 1 individu (R/r = 4/1 cm; Pulau Karimunjawa, habitat padang lamun, 10 cm).
Picture 9. Echinaster luzonicus: looks dorsal
Note – According to Livingstone (1932), specimens with 5, 6 and 7 arm memilliki 2 madreporit while the specimens are relatively small (R / r = 4/1 cm) with 7 arm only has 1 madreporit. (JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC RESOURCES. Volume 1, Number 1, Year 2012, Pages 1-7 Online at: http://ejournal-s1.undip.ac.id/index.php/maquare)
DIVERSITY OF TIKUS ISLAND
The diversity of species
From the results of the identification of 140 specimens of the starfish from Rat Island, it turns out there are only 4 (four) species (Figure 2). This species is the type commonly found in the tropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region. Here are four types of morphological characteristics to those starfish.
a. Archaster typicus Muller & Troschel, 1840 (Family Archasteridae).
This species has a flattened body with five arms. Tapered cuffs, brown to grayish-white. There is usually a dark brown stripe across his arms. Marginal plates consisted of two rows. White thorns, blunt, flat lined apparent limit of his body, emerged from a series of marginal plates inferior (ventral side), a thorn in each plate. These animals buried themselves in the sand and live in groups.
b. Culcita novaeguineae Muller & Troschel, 1842 (Family Goniasteridae).
Culcita novaeguineae pentagonal shape, fat seem like a cushion for the five very short arms. The color is brownish green, filled pimple (granules) orange irregular shape and structure. There is a picture of such nets, and there are areas with no pores on the dorsal side. Necrotic foci varied in size.
c. Linckia laevigata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Family Ophidiasteridae).
Linckia laevigata has a striking color, which is bright blue. It usually has two madreporit. His hands five, slender, inclined cylindrical blunt end. Papillanya hole group. This starfish found around rocky areas and sometimes reaching seagrass area. This species is one that has a long larval period, allowing recruitmennya occur far from the source of their eggs.
d. Nordoa tuberculata Gray, 1840 (Family Ophidiasteridae).
Nordoa tuberculata yellowish mottled with brown on each arm. Cakramnya convex, five arms and inclined cylindrical, tapered. Body wall plates grainy (granular). In some dorsal plate was enlarged and prominent grain. On the ventral, slit ambulakralnya thorns is limited by the wide and flat.
Picture 2. Sea stars in the area of research on Rat Island. 1: Archaster typicus, 2: Culcita novaeguineae, 3: Linckia laevigata; 4: Nardoa.tuberculata (picture on the left is a photo series of specimens in alcohol, right row is a specific characteristic of photos taken under the microscope magnification is weak).
Figure 2. Sea stars found on the reefs of Rat island. 1: Archaster typicus, 2: Culcita novaeguineae, 3: Linckia laevigata; 4: Nardoa.tuberculata (Figures in left raw presents overall picture of each species preserved, raw right shows specific characters of given species under disecting microscope).
2. Class Crinoidea
This group of animals called sea lilies or feather star reserve the beautiful shape. Some of them any kind of life at sea and inhabit the shallow waters such as coral reefs. Size is not more than 40 cm in length and striking colors. These animals have stalks, petals and arms. Each arm branched 2 or more. Each branch has called transverse twigs and branches Pinula makes these furry animals. These animals eat tiny plankton carried by the arm. Animals are sensitive, but has a high regenerative capacity so that it can to heal itself from injury (Nontji, 1993).
Picture2 Morphological of Crinoid
And dioecious sexual reproduction. The gonads are at the base of some Pinula or carpus. Fertilization in sea water or incubation. Eggs are attached to a feather star Pinula. The eggs become larvae, swim freely for a few days. Further down and attach to the substrate and undergo a process of metamorphosis into small stemmed larval form called pentacrinoidyang sized 3mm and metamorphic process takes 6 weeks to adults (Hyman, 1955).
Animal feeding process by filtering the water, plankton into ciliated slit and sleeve and Pinula then flowed into his mouth. Digestive organs in the calyx. Food excreted through the anus near the mouth. All types of this group has a high economic value both to be used as food or for decoration material in the aquarium, except fur a thousand, a thousand, or a crown of thorns mahhkota is jeis destructive, because if the population abundance will eat coral polyps and cause coral colored white and eventually most of the population will rusask and dead coral (Nybakken, 1988).
On the surface of the animal’s body was found a short bumps clinging round the place of which is composed of substances or animal kaur is often called a sea urchin. These animals tersiri of spines, tube feet, turberkel. Sometimes thorns is long, tapering, in which there is also hollow and fragile animal spines short and blunt. The poison is very hard and painful to humans when punctured. Pedicellaria on sea urchins also have a beracyn, berfugsi to banish or paralyze small animals littering or disturbing. These animals usually live in between the rocks ata sand beach or on the seabed. His body without Legan nearly spherical or flattened (Sugiarto, 2007).
Picture 3 Morphology of Echinodea
Complete digestive tract consists of the mouth, the esophagus, stomach, intestines long and circular, rectum and anus. Fur sessile careful eating green algae, carrion, some kind of eating detritus and other sides. Sexual reproduction, fertilization diaoceous and beyond (Ruppert, 1991).
4. Class Holothuroidea
For example, trepang or sea cucumber (Thyone briereus). Her body was soft, shaped like elongated sac. In the skin there are small planks of lime. At one end there is a yag mouth surrounded by tentacles branching. Tentacle is hollow and can be elongated due to water pressure, these animals do not have spines (Sugiarto, 2007).
Sea cucumber creeping lamba seklai, usually hiding in a hole or crevice rocks and oral or embed themselves in the mud or sand of the sea, and only the posterior are Visible. Generally animals are active at night wandering in search of food. The food is organic material contained in the waste substrate tau plankton tentacles attached to the lenders. One by one the tentacles included in the pharynx and when pulled out the food items will be attached to the lenders tentacles and then swallowed. Ataas digestive system comprises the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, cloaca and anus (Brotowidjoyo, 1994).
Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) is the most common group. These animals are only present in the exposure of coral reefs, rocky or muddy beaches and seagrass beds. Not only in shallow waters, others live in the deep ocean around 7.000m. The composition of the basic body shape is not clearly visible on Echinoderms outer shape of sea cucumbers because there is no outer frame. Animals are very moving slowly so as if the cucumbers are always in a state of silence as we see in the wild. To protect themselves from enemies, animals secrete a toxic mucus from the body. There are also types that spray a very sticky sap from the anus when disturbed. Many types of animals that can be consumed even a special food in the Chinese restaurant (Nontji, 1993).
5. Class Ophiouroidea
These animals have 5 long arm or hand, serves as a means of motion, hand fragile and easily broken, but aan grow new hands. The five-movement moves the hand that resembles a snake. Therefore, this type of animal is often called sea serpent star. These animals are susceptible to the environment and are active at night, swimming and foraging with the help of his hands were graceful and writhed like a snake. The mouth will form part of the lost (Ruppert, 1991).
Picture 5 Ophiuroidea
Ophiuroidea animals live in the sea, hiding among seaweed, in mud or in sand active at night and live swimming, food consists of mollusks, krustacae, microorganisms and decaying organic substances that are bottom waters. How to eat to raise the arm above the water to catch plankton and other food items. These animals do not have a current, which is not digested food regurgitated back out the mouth (Romimohtarto & Heilbron, 2001). In Nonthi (1993) states brittle star is usually difficult to be found because it is more fun in places a little dark under a rock or coral crevices. Diatoms are the main food, but some are eating a variety of small animals.
Most Ophiuroid is dioecious. Fertilization outside, resulting in a free-swimming larva ophipluteus. A few days later metamorphosed adults experiencing life. Some types have a bag incubation and free-swimming larvae (Brotowidjoyo, 1994).
Anatomy and Morphology Echinodermata
Animals Echinodermata rough bodied as covered protrusions or spines keranga have different functions but there are also some do not have spines like sea cucumber. Siste, digestion is developing, but has no excretion system. Most of these animals diosius, simple reproductive tract, whereas fertilization takes place externally (Pecherikm 2005).
Water vascular system functions to work the leg tube (tube feet) by regulating the entry and exit of seawater through madreporit (the outlet water ingress). The contraction of the volume of water daam ampulla tube feet tube means organizing footwork. Foot tube also serves to crawl, hold on to the substrate, holding prey or embantu O2 and CO2 gas exchange (Nontji, 1993).
Echinoderms main respirators are skin gills which is an extension of the body cavity out through small holes between asscle lime. Such fluid-filled body cavity lymph nodes, containing amebocyte concerned in blood circulation, respiration and excretion. Contained in the body cavity organs such as the digestive gland (Ruppret, 1991).
These animals survive with a unique water vascular system is involved in the breathing, movement, and meetings manakan. The mouth is placed at the bottom of the body. The organs of the body consists of a five-part symmetrical structures including teeth and tongue like a fat (Sugiarto, 2007).
Hemal system (A) Central portion of in Asteroidea (B) in Holothuroidea w/ gut & respiratory tree
JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC RESOURCES. Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012, Halaman 1-7 Online di : http://ejournal-s1.undip.ac.id/index.php/maquares
STUDI TAKSONOMI BINTANG LAUT (Asteroidea, Echinodermata)
DARI KEPULAUAN KARIMUNJAWA, JEPARA
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis ISSN Cetak : 2087 Diterbitkan Oleh:
Ikatan Sarjana Oseanologi Indonesia dan Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Institut Pertanian Bogor
Oseanologi dan Limnologi di Indonesia (2011) 37(3): 455-478 ISSN 0125 – 9830. KERAGAMAN JENIS, JUMLAH INDIVIDU DAN POLA SEBARAN SPASIAL BINTANG LAUT (ASTEROIDEA, ECHINODERMATA) DI PULAU TIKUS, KEPULAUAN SERIBU
Oseanologi dan Limnologi di Indonesia (2008) 34(3) : 371-384 ISSN 0125-9830. SYNAPTIDAE (ECHINDERMATA : APODIDAE) DARI DAERAH LAMUN ELNUSA PULAU TIMOR, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR. PUSAT PENELITIAN OSEANOGRAFI-LIPI
KEANEKARAGAMAN SUMBERDAYA HAYATI LAUT